In most of the Haskell code I’ve read any functions from other modules have been imported directly into the namespace and I reached the stage where I had this list of imports in a file:
import System.IO import Data.List.Split import Data.Char import Data.Bits import Control.Monad import Data.Map import Data.Set import Data.List import Data.Maybe
This becomes a problem when you want to use a function which is defined in multiple modules such as filter:
clustering.hs:53:43: Ambiguous occurrence `filter' It could refer to either `Data.List.filter', imported from `Data.List' at clustering.hs:11:1-16 (and originally defined in `GHC.List') or `Data.Set.filter', imported from `Data.Set' at clustering.hs:10:1-16 or `Data.Map.filter', imported from `Data.Map' at clustering.hs:9:1-16
One way to solve this is to change occurrences of filter to Data.List.filter but it’s a bit long winded and in this case there is a function in the Prelude package which is available without us importing anything.
Unfortunately we’d have to use the prefix Prelude to refer to it since all the other versions of the function have made it ambiguous.
We still want to use some of the functions in those other modules though so we can do a qualified import which will make the functions available to us but only if we refer to them by their full name. It won’t import them into our namespace.
For example to initialise a map we’d do this:
> import qualified Data.Map > Data.Map.assocs $ Data.Map.fromList [(1,2), (3,7)] [(1,2),(3,7)]
That’s a bit long winded though so we can rename imports with a shorter name to make our life a bit easier:
import System.IO import Data.List.Split import Data.Char import Data.Bits import qualified Control.Monad as Monad import qualified Data.Map as Map import qualified Data.Set as Set import qualified Data.List as List import qualified Data.Maybe as Maybe
We can then use functions in those packages like so:
> Maybe.maybeToList (Just 3) 
For this particular function I haven’t come across any with the same name so we might want to import that one into our namespace but require the use of the Maybe prefix for any other functions:
import qualified Data.Maybe as Maybe import Data.Maybe (maybeToList)
> maybeToList (Just 3) 
There’s a wiki entry I came across which explains Haskell modules this in a bit more detail and is worth a read.